An Ultimate Guide to Diabetes Insipidus: What It Is and the Symptoms

Most people have heard a few types of diabetes; however, are you familiar with diabetes insipidus? When most types of diabetes have something to do with having a high level of blood sugar, this condition is a bit different. What makes them similar is that your body will produce a lot of urine too with this type of diabetes!

What It Is Exactly and How It Affects You

Your body produces a substance named antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When you are slightly dehydrated or thirsty, the ADH levels increase. Your kidneys then reabsorb more water and extinguish concentrated urine. When your body does not produce adequate ADH, the condition is named central diabetes insipidus. If it does make adequate ADH, but your kidneys cannot respond, it is called nephrogenic.

What Are the Symptoms?

When your kidneys cannot preserve water properly, there are a few things that will happen to you. Most of the time, you will get really thirsty and pee a lot, which is also known as polyuria. Some patients will be dehydrated. When it happens, you can have lethargy, irritability, muscle pains, and unexplained weakness.

How Does It Get Diagnosed?

Then, how can diabetes insipidus be diagnosed? When you experience this condition, you are likely to wind up at your doctor for help with the thirst and continuous need for a bathroom. To diagnose the problem, your doctor will conduct a serious of urine and blood tests which may take a few hours.
Then, the doctor will calculate the sodium in your pee and blood too. Moreover, it is also possible that your doctor will provide you with an ADH substitute to observe if your kidneys react by concentrating your urine. The result of your lab test and your response to the ADH will show the diagnosis.

How Does It Get Treated?

Now, how is diabetes insipidus treated? First, your doctor will usually tell you to drink enough fluids to replace the continuous loss of water. If you have the central type, there are some medications that you may get such as desmopressin or vasopressin. It commonly comes as a nasal spray.

On the other hand, if you have the nephrogenic type, it is commonly harder to deal with. If the problem is caused by the use of drugs, you need to stop the medicine since it may increase the symptoms. To prevent a recurrent problem, just make sure to meet your doctor once you the symptoms of diabetes insipidus occur. 

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